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Summary Chart

See also: Vision Screening Recommendations from the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

Screening Method Birth INFANCY
to 3 years

3 to 5 years

6 years
and older

History: Risk factors and family history related to eye and vision disorders x x x x
External inspection x x x x
Vision: fixation and tracking x x x
Eye Movements/
Ocular motility
x x x
Pupil examination x x x
Red reflex x x x (photoscreening) x
Monocular Visual Acuity Assessment  (HOTV, Lea Symbols, Snellen Letter or Number Chart, etc) x x
Color Vision +/- +/-
Stereoposis x x
Binocular alignment x x
Retinal exam/
attempt x

Recommendation for color vision screening is not in 2003 AAP Policy Statement on ‘Eye examination in infants, children and young adults by pediatricians’, but is in potential exam components of the American Optometric Association (see Table 1 in the article ‘Preschool Vision Screening: Summary of a Task Force Report. Pediatrics. 106(5):1105-1116, 2000.)


  1. AAP Policy Statement (2003; reaffirmed 2007):
    Eye Examination in Infants, Children, and Young Adults by Pediatricians
  2. American Academy of Ophthalmology Joint Policy statement: Vision Screening for Infants and Children.  (2013)
  3. Preschool vision screening: Update on guidelines and techniques.  Alley CL.  Curr Opin Ophthalmology.  24(5):415-420. Sept 2014.
  4. Screening for visual impairment in children ages 1-5 years: Systematic review to update the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. Jan 2011.  (AHRQ Publication No. 11-05151-EF-1)
  5. Project Universal Preschool Vision Screening (PUPVS) – Procedures